- Last Updated: Friday, 11 June 2021 19:35
- Written by GRAHAM BROOKS
BOUNDARY MARKERS ASSOCIATED WITH INDUSTRY.
Many industries had a need to mark the boundary of their land or the rights to the minerals which they were exploiting. these were often marked by stones with usually initials carved in them to signify the company. As the iron industry developed cast iron markers were produced.
MINERAL RIGHTS BOUNDARY MARKERS
Most mineral rights belonged to the 'owner' of the manor. Therefore in areas such as the north Pennines which had rich mineral veins it was very important that the boundary between neighbouring manors in the area of the veins was clearly and accurately marked. In areas that were particularly rich with numerous veins there was often a number of legal cases to establish the actual boundary and regular boundary markers were put up. These markers usually have the initialsof the two manors carved on opposing sides. It is rarer for the company exploiting the mineral veins to be shown on the posts.
A marker stone at NY 70033 3522
This is one of a series of stones between the mineral rights of the Flemings and the Thanets on Cross Fell. Each stone has a large T on one side and F on the other and an individual number.
Another example at Teeshead NY 699 340
This has F36 on the west side and BFT on the east side.
Stone at NY 69850 34790 marked as number 35
Stone at NY70003 35123 number 30.
The boundary on the north side of Fleming holding also has a series of stones
This one is situated at NY 67266 35818 has a F on the south side and G on the north.
A cast iron marker post above Greenside Mine on side of Sheffield Pike.
Mineral Royalty boundary stone at NY 785 417, between Alston Moor (A on north side). This was owned by the Greenwich Hospital for Sailors. Who were given it by the government when the Earl of Derwentwater had his lands ceased after the 1715 Jacobean uprising. And the royalty of Priorsdale (P on south side) which covers the South Tyne valley.
A boundary marker on the summit of Round Hill NY 744 362. one side has A for Alston Moor and P for Priorsdale.
Boundary stone at NY 771 426. South face has G & Co 1849. (G & Co = Govenor and Company an alternative name for London Lead Company.)
A similar stone is at NY 758 427 above Bentyfield mine.
Another stone in the same series as the 2 above stones at NY 76738 42578. D G Co on east face GOV and Co on west face.
Boundary Stone at NY 83157 19911 with E 45 carved on the south face.
The moor between the Eden valley and Lunedale (Stainmore) is a fairly non descript area and the boundary between the manors of Earl Thanet in the Eden Valley and the Earl of Strathmore and as is shown from Cary's map of Westmorland from 1789 shows 2 boundaries with the Earl of Thanets to the west of the Earl of Strathmore.
However at the head of Swindale beside the road from Brough to Middleton in Teesdale a series of lead veins which was started to be mined in the mid 1700s. In 1790 there was a need to determine the accurate line of the boundary so that royalties could be collected corectly. The boundary was finally settled in 1808 and a series of stones were placed across the moor. This is now the county boundary.
THE BARONY OF GILSLAND
The Earl of Carlisle part of the Howard family gained control of the Barony of Gilsland in the 16th Century. This massive area of north Cumbria from the scottish border in the north to the north of the Eden valley.
The estate used stone markers to mark a number of developments in the barony.
This stone has drain carved on the top. It stands on the bank of the River Irthing at the point where a field drain discharges into the river NY 59729 64804.
There are a series of similar stones beside the track from Lanerton Farm Where drains discharge into Wall Burn.
Across the Barony are a series of posts with datres carved on them. These are usually associated with plantations of both broad leave and conifer trees. This stone is at NY 59045 65347 and is associated with a beech wood.
WAR DEPARTMENT BOUNDARY STONES.
During various crisis the government took over areas of land for national security and marked this land if fences were not suitable with marker stones inscribed with WD and an arrow. They usually have a number on them also.
A marker set into a wall at NX 979 743, Dumfries. This was one of a series.
One of a series of concrete posts marked MOD running beside the 'old waverley line' north of Carlisle showing the boundary of the old RAF 4 MU site.
A pair of marker stones at the South Gare, the mouth of the River Tees.
RAILWAY COMPANY MARKERS.
As railways developed the companies had to purchase strips of land on which to build their lines and larger areas on which to build their stations and goods yards. These were usually fenced off but at certain points usually near access points then boundary markers were placed. These showed usually the railway company initials.
NORTH EASTERN RAILWAY COMPANY.
Cast iron boundary post. (Alston station Discovery Centre)
NEWCASTLE AND CARLISLE RAILWAY.
Cast iron boundary post. (Alston Station Discovery Centre).
COCKERMOUTH AND PENRITH RAILWAY COMPANY.
Boundary stone at junction of Station Road Keswick and the Entrance to the station.
MARYPORT AND CARLISLE RAILWAY
A Maryport and Carlisle boundary post (St Bees Railway Museum)
A Maryport and Carlisle railway boundary maker plate (St Bees Railway Museum)
MIDLAND RAILWAY COMPANY
A rust Midland Railway boundary post still institu near the Carlisle to settle line NY 49895 49650.