- Last Updated: Friday, 11 June 2021 19:44
- Written by GRAHAM BROOKS
CUMBRIAN PARISH, TOWNSHIP AND MANOR BOUNDARY MARKERS
A boundary marker between Dent and Bardon parishes.SD 667 860.
A marker post between parishes of Lythe and Levens in south Cumbria, near Gilpin Bridge on the A5074. The inscriptions are readable on the stone, the north side has LYTHE and the south side LEVENS.
Marker stone near summit of Burnhope Seat on the county boundary between Cumbria and Durham.
At NY 78746 37539.
Marker stone at NY 61499 4239. Between the manors of Haresceugh (H)
and Melmerby (M).
This unmarked marker stone on Hartside Height in red sandstone must have been carried to this site (local stone is grey limestone).
This boundary was once very important with minerals being mined very close on both sides. On the west side on Haresceugh Fell both coal and lead were mined. Whilst to the east coal was mined.
Extract from a map to show the boundaries between the Duke of Devonshire's Gambleby Manor and George Musgraves' manor of Kirkoswald. dated January 1852. (Carlisle archive centre D/MDS/4/135)
This shows the position of the boundary stone shown above.
This stone beside the A689 at NY 63139 41588 is inscribed with Kirkoswald Parish on the road side and is part of the same boundary as the stone above. The next stone up the hill is now built into a corner of a stone wall and appears to be plain.
TOMS SMITHS STONE
Tom Smiths stone stands on a slight raise on the watershed of the north Pennines at NY 652 465.
Each side has a letter inscribed on it W (north east) A (south east) C (Soth west) K (north west). The stone marks the position where four parish boundaries meet, A Alston, C Croglin, K Knarsdale and W Whitley.
The stone is approxiamtely 4 ft high and 12 inchs square.
First mentioned by name by Nicholson and Burns in 1741 when they describe a bounder of Alston Moor which is undated.
There has been a number of theories put forward to the identity of 'Tom Smith'. T H B Graham suggests that a Tom Smith committeed suicide at the point. It was often a custom that suicide victims were buried either at crossroads or at parish boundaries. However this site does seem very remote for anyone to commit suicide or to carry a body.
One of the land owners butting onto the stone was Queens College, Oxford and Thomas Smith was from the college. Born in 1614 he was Prebendary of Carlisle, Prebendary of Durham, Dean of Carlisle and at the time of his death in 1702 Bishop of Carlisle. This was 39 years before its mention by name but would still be present in the memory.
Extract from Donalds map of 1774 showing Tom Smiths Stone.
Walton's plan of Alston Moor from 1840 showing Tom Smiths Stone as part of the boundary.
Map of the Barony of Gilsland 1829. Shows Tom Smith Stone as a boundary marker for the Barony.
A parish marker built into the Raven bridge parapet at NY 601 430. Between Kirkoswald and Renwick.
A stone commemorating a preambulation of the boundaries of the manor of Haresceugh at NY 601 430. Preambulation of manor boundaries were a frequent and necessary action to ensure that people knew the boundaries of each manor and ensure the correct rents and taxes etc. are paid.
Sketch of inscription on stone.
An unmarked marker stone at NY61989 45954.
A metal plaque on a stone next to the old bridge over the Caldew at Mosedale. Showing the boundary to the Township of Bowscale.
A marker stone in Gelt woods near the large quarries. NY 527 587. Inscription "Brampton parish award North Boundary."
Another parish boundary marker in Gelt Woods. This is a modern marker put up to mark the boundary of Hayton parish to commemorate the millenium (2000 AD).
Boundary stone on summit of Adam Seat
NY 471 091.
L on north side.
H on south side.
The same boundary climbs to Branstree summit from Gatesgarth Pass and is marked by stones the majority like normal stones with L on the north side and H on the south side.
However in a few places the boundary is marked by stones laid flat with L and H carved in and a line showing the boundary.
This stone is on the Cumbria/Yorkshire border at NY 812 040 beside the B6270. The NW face (Cumbria side) is blank. The SE side names the Hamlet of Birkdale.
A modern boundary marker on the Cumbria and Yorekshire boundary near Nine Standards Rigg. NY 82744 05778.
This stone on the Tan Hill to Stainmore road at NY 876 087, marks the boundary between South Stainmore (east face) township and Kaber (west Face) township.
This stone beside the road crossing Blackhause Bottom Bridge NY 869 130 marks the boundary between South Stainmore (south face) Township and Middle Stainmore (north face) Township.
Boundary marker at NY 895 124 in the verge on the A66 only one side has an inscription on it. The stone has probably been moved during the numerous road improvements that have occurred in the area.
Reay Cross on Stainmore NY 904 123. (Originally it stood in the roman marching camp to the west and was moved to its oresent site in 1992 during road improvements.)
This is a pre-Norman boundary marker dating from circa 950AD to mark the boundary between English Northumberland and Scottish Strathclyde. In the 13th Century it marked the boundary between the dioceses of Carlisle and Glasgow and more recently between the counties of Westmorland and the North Riding of Yorkshire. Traditionally it is said that it marked the burial of Erik Bloodaxe the last viking ruler of York who was killed here in 954AD. But there is no archaeological evidence for the burial.
Originally it would have been 3m high with a wheel head. now only part of the shaft and socket remain.
Artistic interpreptation of how the cross would have looked originally.
Westmorland map scale about 2.5 miles to 1 inch, by Robert Morden, published by Abel Swale, the Unicorn, St Paul's Churchyard, Awnsham, and John Churchill, the Black Swan, Paternoster Row, London, 1695. Showing the site of the cross.
A boundary stone at NY 64634 18109 between Maulds Meaburn (NW face) and Kings Meaburn (SE face).
Boundary stone between parishes of Mallerstand(g) and Nateby at NY 77750 04636. This is the south side, the north side is not able to be photographed due to the wall being to closed.
It is a rectangular stone with a dome top and bench mark shown on the 1st edition OS as being 702.1ft.
A boundary stone at NY 473 394 square red sandstone pillar inscribed CALTHWAITE AND PLUMPTON.
A boundary stone on Blackrack Bridge at NY 47917 42809. This is similar to the one above and suggest that the parish of Plumpton marked their parish boundary.
The ultimate parish boundary marker. The Greystoke pillar on the point where the parish boundary crosses the Penrith to Greystoke at NY 492 297.
CARLISLE CITY BOUNDARY.
Carlisle city has always had a series of stone markers to show the boundary around it. As the city boundary has been expanded so new stones have been added.
Report on boundary stones in Carlisle Journal 13th February 1852.
Boundary stone on boundary wall of Cemetery at NY 393 542.
Boundary Stone in Richardson St against the Cemetery boundary wall (In a private garden) NY 39339 54459
Boundary satone now on grass verge of Dalston Rd NY 38693 54131.
Boundary stone from the 1912 extension when Stanwix was enclosed. Brampton road NY 410 573.
A boundary stone on the route of the Carlisle canal at NY 37883 56510.
A boundary stone on London Rd (A6) at NY 42265 53575. Put in when the boundary was increased in 1912. This allowed the building of the Harraby housing estates.
Carlisle City Council also put marker stones in Geltdale when they built their waterworks there in 1909 See photo
Stone on the boundary between Harraby and Carleton on the side of the A6. NY 42350 53496.
Rather a shame this stone has become buried in the tarmac and the H and C are nearly obscured.
BOUNDARY STONES OVER SHEFFIELD PIKE
Stone on summit of Sheffield Pike NY 369 182. One side has a H (Howard of Greystoke) the other has a M (Marshall of Patterdale) a inscritption of ER and date 1830 is also shown.
There are two metal posts with H and M 1912 also, one at Heron Pike and the other above Nick Head.
Metal post on Heron Pike.
There is another 2 stone markers at NY 37370 17823.
and at NY 37946 17559. Both are marked H and M
A boundary stone at NY 29613 28805 at apoint marked on the modern OS map as the Stake. It marks the point at which 4 boundaries come together.
Originally known as Whaystone. it was visited when the boundary of the Brundholme Manor, which was part of the Dalemain estate, on 7th June 1770.
ref Two Thousand Five Hundred Cumberland and Westmorland Folk p 53.
Each side has an engraving on it
North Side GH 6 Gilfred Lawson
East side IL 7 james Lowther
South side EH J Edward Hasell
West side LE 9. Lord Egremont
At present the interpretatrion of the numbers is not known.
The ridge running over High Pen and low Pen have a series of unmarked stones. They are dressed sandstone (natural rock in the area is a slate type) and so they have been carried up and set up.
position of the stones are NY 11252 19017, NY 110 189 , NY 10761 18881, NY 10630 18921