PREHISTORIC SITES

 

 

I claim no knowledge at all about prehistoric archaeology. But I do find some of the sites very fascinating but again I do not try to understand their function or meaning beyond the need for shelter, or  the need to commemorate their dead relatives.

HENGE MONUMENTS

 

STANDING STONES

HILL FORTS

STONE CIRCLES

CAIRNS

BROCHS

  

ROUND HOUSES.

 

SETTLEMENTS

 

STONE CIRCLES.

These occur throughout the country, the most famous and complex being Stonehenge. Others can be just a few small stones arranged in an approximate circle with little dressing of the stone having taken place. They are occasionally associated with avenues of standing stones, single standing stones, or avenues made from earth banks. The remains we see today are often much altered from the original form with either some stones having fallen over or totally removed for other use over the centuries.

There has been numerous theories as to their use with various astronomical alignments being postulated with the commonest being to either the summer or winter solstice.

 THE COCKPIT

GAMELANDS

 LONG MEG

ODDENDALE

oddendale-stone-circle-2

 ODDENDALE STONE CIRCLE. NY 591 129.

It consists of a mound about 1 ft high with a small surrounding circle of stones and an outer circle of 34 boulders. About 90 ft in diameter and 30 ft beyond the inner circle. (ref.  Westmorland A survey and inventory by theRoyal commission on Historical Monuments 1936. page 90)

Excavation report C&W transactions old series VI  P178.

 

 

 

LONG MEG STONE CIRCLE NY 570 371.long-meg-circle

 There are examples of rock art carved on Long Meg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

cockpitstonecircle

 

 

 THE COCKPIT STONE CIRCLE NY 48256 22213 on Moor Divock above Pooley Bridge. An area rich in prehistoric remains.

 The works consists of what appears to be the remains of two concentric rings of stone (diameter 84 86 ft.) probably representing the inner and outer of a rough enclosing wall. Most of stones are fallen, but some thirty remain standing.

Ref. RCHM Inventory of Westmorland 1936.

 

 

 GAMELANDS STONE CIRCLE NY 64013 08160

 This circle consists of  shap granite erratic boulders and one other type, arranged into an appriximate circle 138 ft in diametergameland stone circle

Ref. RCHM Inventory of Westmorland 1936. 

 

 

 

 

IRON AGE HILL FORTS.

CARROCK FELL

CASTLE CRAG HAWESWATER (MARDALE)

MOSS CASTLE DUMFRIESHIRE

RANGE CASTLE DUMFRIESHIRE

CARROCK FELL

carrockfellfort2

 A  view of the hill fort on the summit of Carrock Fell.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 The remains of the stone rampart on the south side.carrock fell fort 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CASTLE CRAG FORT.

CASTLECRAG2

CASTLECRAGFORT

NY 469 127. On a promentory overlooking Matter5dale (Haweswater) Scheduled Ancient Monument
no. 22514.

The monument is located on the top of Castle Crag, a projection of rock extending north-east from Birks Crag. The ground falls precipitously from the north-west, north-east and south-east sides of the crag. It is an Iron Age hillfort with stone rampart and rock-cut ditch covers ca 0.16 acres. Entrance on NW. The site is easily defensible.

The hillfort includes an oval-shaped internal enclosure measuring approx 46 x 22m that is protected on its south-west side by a rampart of stones up to 2m wide and 1m high . The precipitous slopes on the other sides preclude the need for ramparts there. There is an entrance at the south-west corner of the enclosure leading up a narrow ledge of rock. Within the enclosure are 3 artificially levelled areas - 2 circular areas measuring c. 3m diam and an irregularly shaped area measuring a maximum of 6.5 x 4.6m. Outside the stone rampart is a rock-cut ditch 4m wide and up to 3m deep and beyond this is a second rock-cut ditch 10m wide and 2-3m deep. Between the ditches a rocky knoll has been used as an outer enclosure and contains further artificially levelled areas. Towards the south-eastern end of the outer enclosure is a cutting in the rock forming an entrance 2.5m wide. Outside the outer ditch is a rectangular artificially levelled area measuring c  19 x 15m which enhances a terrace in the adjacent hillside.

castle-crag-fort-plan

PLAN FROM RCHM SURVEY OF WESTMORLAND 1936.

MOSS CASTLE, ALMAGILL HILL DUMFRIESHIRE.

 moss-castle-alma

 Situated at NY 0884 7603

Fragmentary remains of a fort. It is best preserved on the southside as a double ramport with a well defined entrance. North side defenses have been obliterated.

100m E-W  by 150m N-S  maximum preserved

RANGE CASTLE ALMAGILL HILL DUMFRIESHIRE. 

range-castle-alma-hill

Situated NY 0864 7639.

A hill summit surrounded by a rock cut ditch 30 ft wide by 7 - 8 ft deep with associated bank enclosing an area about 300 ft in diameter. A central rock boss 80ft diameter is defended by stone walls. 

 

 

 

 HENGES

KING ARTHURS ROUND TABLE

MAYBRUGH

 

 

mayburgh-hinge

 MAYBRUGH HINGE NY 519 284.

Consists of abank made of over 5 million water washed cobbles between four and seven metres high with a circumference of over 150 metres. It has a single entrance which had four standing stones in it. There where four standing stones in the centre of which only one remains.

 

 

 

 

 

 

mayburgh henge

 Drawing of Myburgh, Eamont Bridge taken from Mayburgh and King Arthur's Round Table by C W Dymond CWAAS transactions (1st Series) vol 11 (1891).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kingarthursseat

 KING ARTHURS ROUND TABLE NY 523 283.

Despite its name this henge has no relation with King Arthur. It consists of a flat central platform surrounded by a ditch with a bank on the out side. Originally there was two entrances the north west one and part of the bank has been destroyed by modern road work.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAIRNS AND BARROWS.

Cairns come in many forms but the term is usually used to mean a pile of stones. These may have been piled up to act as a marker of a tribes territory, occasionaly they covered a grave (when the term barrow is also used) or a pile of stones that have been cleared from an area prior to cultivation, Field Clearance cairns.

chambered-tombchsambered-tomb-cairn

A chambered tomb that has been exposed within a cairn at Balvaid, Gleann Beag NG 845 166. The remains of the cairn from the other side.

The cairn is 19m by 16m and the chamber is 5 ft by 6 ft. No skeletal remains were found when the cairn was excavated.

 

pooleb1cairn

 

Remains of a cairn at NY 

 

 

 White Raise Cairn on Moor Divock NY 48886 22435.

 

A 20m diameter cairn but very disturbed with the remains of a cyst.

 cyst pb

 

Cyst in which bones of an adult were found.

 

cairns ny 35102 34798b

A pair of cairns on the sky line at NY 35102 34798.

Both appear to have excavated.

 

 BROCHS

 

Brochs were defensible dry stone towers built between the 4th century BC and 1st century AD allong the western sea board of north Scotland and the islands. They consisted of two leaves of dry stone walling tied together. There appears from the remains and archaeological investigation that there was a series of wooden floors within the building.

The Glen Elg brochs.

 

These 2 brochs are probably the best preserved on the mainland. Situated about 500m apart it is not known if they were both occupied at the same time.

Dun Telve

 

 

 

duntelve4

 

 

 

Part of the stone walls that remain to nearly 10m high with the structure that holds the two leaves together.

  

duntelve3 

The small defensible entrance to the broch.

Dun Troddan.

duntroddan1

The remains of this broch still standing to 7 m.

duntoddan2

The remains of the internal staircase. Between the two leaves of the wall to reach the upper levels.

 STANDING STONES.

 

 

 

BOGLEHALL STANDING STONES.

 

boglehall-standing-stones

 

 

 

 

In a field next to the B867. NO 050 383.  These may have been a 'four poster'.

 

 

 

ROUND HOUSES.

 

 

Achtercain, Gairloch.

 

 

There are 10 roundhouses in this area of varying sizes surviving as circles of stone. Carbon dating of three give a bronze/iron age date. The walls were either made of stone or were two stone facings with earth and rubble between being between 1 and 2 metres thick and standing to about 1 metre. The entrance usually faced SE. No roof survive but they were probably conical thatch on wood rafters resting on the wall with secondary wooden supports inside in the larger diameter huts. 

 

roundhouse-1-achtercairn

 

 

Excavated remains of round house 1.

 

8m. diameter and is situated on a slight raised platform. Carbon 14 dating of 726 BC.

 

roundhouse-8-actercairn

 

 

 

Excavated remains of round house 8. This has a small sheiling built into it later.

 

17.5 m diameter the biggest structure in the area. Dating to 254 - 213 BC.

 

 SETTLEMENTS

On Aughertree Fell there are 3 Romano-British settlement enclosures with associated field systems and tracks on the north facing slope.

 

aughtree fella

 The eastern settlement is sub circular with inner and outer banks uypto 12m high with a 1m deep ditch between and contains 0.4ha and has smaller enclosures inside it.

 

aughtree fellb

 The middle enclosure contains 0.75ha with 2 banks upto 1.3m high and a ditch 1m deep and 7m wide.

 

TRELKELD COMMON

 

threlkeld settlement

 

Outline of the field system stand out with a hut circle in the centre. The large rock has a deep pool on the opposite side said to be a possible well.