CUMBRIAN PARISH, TOWNSHIP AND MANOR BOUNDARY MARKERS

 

parishboundary marker bardondaleJPGA boundary marker between Dent and Bardon parishes.SD 667 860.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

parish boundary lythe leven

A marker post between parishes of Lythe and Levens in south Cumbria, near Gilpin Bridge on the A5074. The inscriptions are readable on the stone, the north side has LYTHE and the south side LEVENS.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    Marker stone near summit of Burnhope Seat on the county boundary between Cumbria and Durham.

At NY 78746 37539.

marker-stone-ny-78746-37539

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marker stone at NY 61499 4239.  Between the manors of Haresceugh (H)

and Melmerby (M).

BOUNDARY-STONE-NY-61499-423

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MARKER-STONE-HARTSIDE-HEIGH

 

 This unmarked marker stone on Hartside Height in red sandstone must have been carried to this site (local stone is grey limestone).

 

This boundary was once very important with minerals being mined very close on both sides. On the west side on Haresceugh Fell both coal and lead were mined. Whilst to the east coal was mined.

 

 

 

 

 

 hartside-boundary-map

 

 

Extract from a map to show the boundaries between the Duke of Devonshire's Gambleby Manor and George Musgraves' manor of Kirkoswald. dated January 1852. (Carlisle archive centre D/MDS/4/135)

 

This shows the position of the boundary stone shown above.

 

KIRKOSWALD BOUNDARY STONE N

 This stone beside the A689 at NY 63139 41588 is inscribed with Kirkoswald Parish on the road side and is part of the same boundary as the stone above. The next stone up the hill is now built into a corner of a stone wall and appears to be plain.

 

 TOMS SMITHS STONE

 

tomsmith1   tomsmith2    tomsmith3   tomsmith4

 

Tom Smiths stone stands on a slight raise on the watershed of the north Pennines at NY 652 465.

 

Each side has a letter inscribed on it  W (north east) A (south east) C (Soth west) K (north west).  The stone marks the position where four parish boundaries meet, A Alston, C Croglin, K Knarsdale and W Whitley.

The stone is approxiamtely 4 ft high and 12 inchs square.

First mentioned by name by Nicholson and Burns in 1741 when they describe a bounder of Alston Moor which is undated.

There has been a number of theories put forward to the identity of 'Tom Smith'. T H B Graham suggests that a Tom Smith committeed suicide at the point. It was often a custom that suicide victims were buried either at crossroads or at parish boundaries. However this site does seem very remote for anyone to commit suicide or to carry a body.

 

One of the land owners butting onto the stone was Queens College, Oxford and Thomas Smith was from the college. Born in 1614 he was Prebendary of Carlisle, Prebendary of Durham, Dean of Carlisle and at the time of his death in 1702 Bishop of Carlisle. This was 39 years before its mention by name but would still be present in the memory.

 

DONALDMAPEtom-smith

 Extract from Donalds map of 1774 showing Tom Smiths Stone.

 

DWALPAN2A

Walton's plan of Alston Moor from 1840 showing Tom Smiths Stone as part of the boundary.

 tom smith stone3

Map of the Barony of Gilsland 1829. Shows Tom Smith Stone as a boundary marker for the Barony.

 

renwickbridge

A parish marker built into the Raven bridge parapet at NY 601 430. Between   Kirkoswald and Renwick.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

renwickbridge2

A stone commemorating a preambulation of the boundaries of the manor of Haresceugh at NY 601 430. Preambulation of manor boundaries were a frequent and necessary action to ensure that people knew the boundaries of each manor and ensure the correct rents and taxes etc. are paid.

 

haresceugh boundasry

Sketch of inscription on stone.

 

 

 

 

 

marker-stone-ny-61989-45954

 

An unmarked marker stone at NY61989 45954.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

marker-mosedale

A metal plaque on a stone next to the old bridge over the Caldew at Mosedale. Showing the boundary to the Township of Bowscale.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

brampton-boundarymarkergelt

 

A marker stone in Gelt woods near the large quarries. NY 527 587. Inscription "Brampton parish award North Boundary."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

haytonparishmarker-mm

 

 

 

 

Another parish boundary marker in Gelt Woods. This is a modern marker put up to mark the boundary of Hayton parish to commemorate the millenium (2000 AD).

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 Boundary stone on summit of Adam Seat boundary-stone-adam-seat2boundarystone-adam-seat

 NY 471 091.

L on  north side.

H on south side.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

boundarymarkerbranstree

The same boundary climbs to Branstree summit from Gatesgarth Pass and is marked by stones the majority like normal stones with L on the north side and H on the south side.

However in a few places the boundary is marked by stones laid flat with L and H carved in and a line showing the boundary.

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

  

 

 

 boudary-marker-branstree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 birkdalebs

 This stone is on the Cumbria/Yorkshire border at NY 812 040 beside the B6270. The NW face (Cumbria side) is blank. The SE side names the Hamlet of Birkdale.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 modern county boundary mark

  A modern boundary marker on the Cumbria and Yorekshire boundary near Nine Standards Rigg. NY 82744 05778.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 stainmore1   stainmoresouth2  stainmorekaber

 

 

This stone on the Tan Hill to Stainmore road at NY 876 087, marks the boundary between South Stainmore (east face) township and Kaber (west Face) township.

 

southstainmore6    stainmoresouth5  stainmore-middle4

This stone beside the road crossing Blackhause Bottom Bridge NY 869 130 marks the boundary between South Stainmore (south face) Township and Middle Stainmore (north face) Township.

 boundary-stainmoretop

 

Boundary marker at NY 895 124 in the verge on the A66 only one side has an inscription on it. The stone has probably been moved during the numerous road improvements that have occurred in the area.

reay-cross

 

Reay Cross on Stainmore NY 904 123. (Originally it stood in the roman marching camp to the west and was moved to its oresent site in 1992 during road improvements.)

This is a pre-Norman boundary marker dating from circa 950AD to mark the boundary between English Northumberland and Scottish Strathclyde. In the 13th Century it marked the boundary between the dioceses of Carlisle and Glasgow and more recently  between the counties of Westmorland and the North Riding of Yorkshire. Traditionally it is said that it marked the burial of Erik Bloodaxe the last viking ruler of York who was killed here in 954AD. But there is no archaeological evidence for the burial.

Originally it would have been 3m high with a wheel head. now only part of the shaft and socket remain.

reay-cross2

Artistic interpreptation of how the cross would have looked originally.

 

reaycrossmap

Westmorland map scale about 2.5 miles to 1 inch, by Robert Morden, published by Abel Swale, the Unicorn, St Paul's Churchyard, Awnsham, and John Churchill, the Black Swan, Paternoster Row, London, 1695.  Showing the site of the cross.

boundary stone ny6463418109     boundary stone ny 64634 181

A boundary stone at NY 64634 18109 between Maulds Meaburn (NW face) and Kings Meaburn (SE face).

 

 

boundary stoneny7775004636

 

Boundary stone between parishes of Mallerstand(g) and Nateby at NY 77750 04636. This is the south side, the  north side is not able to be photographed due to the wall being to closed.

It is a rectangular stone with a dome top and bench mark shown on the 1st edition OS as being 702.1ft.

 

 

 boundary-stone-near-calthwa

 

A boundary stone at NY 473 394 square red sandstone pillar inscribed CALTHWAITE AND PLUMPTON.

 

blackrack bridge

 

A boundary stone on Blackrack Bridge at NY 47917 42809. This is similar to the one above and suggest that the parish of Plumpton marked their parish boundary.

 

greystoke pillar

The ultimate parish boundary marker. The Greystoke pillar on the point where the parish boundary crosses the Penrith to Greystoke at NY 492 297.

 

CARLISLE CITY BOUNDARY.

 

Carlisle city has always had a series of stone markers to show the boundary around it. As the city boundary has been expanded so new stones have been added.

 

 boundarystonesreport1321852

 boudarystoneb1321852

 boundarystonesc1321852

 Report on boundary stones in Carlisle Journal 13th February 1852.

 

boundarystonecemetry

 Boundary stone on boundary wall of Cemetery at NY 393 542.

carlisle boundar richard st

 Boundary Stone in Richardson St against the Cemetery boundary wall (In a private garden) NY 39339 54459

 

carlisle boundary dalston r

 

Boundary satone now on grass verge of Dalston Rd NY 38693 54131.

 

carlisle-boundary-1912

 Boundary stone from the 1912 extension when Stanwix was enclosed. Brampton road NY 410 573.

 boundarystone-canal

 A boundary stone on the route of the Carlisle canal at NY 37883 56510.

 

 boundary stone london rd

A boundary stone on London Rd (A6) at NY 42265 53575. Put in when the boundary was increased in 1912. This allowed the building of the Harraby housing estates.

 

Carlisle City Council also put marker stones in Geltdale when they built their waterworks there in 1909 See photo

harrabycarletonboundaryston

 

Stone on the boundary between Harraby and Carleton on the side of the A6. NY 42350 53496.

 

Rather a shame this stone has become buried in the tarmac and the H and C are nearly obscured. 

BOUNDARY STONES OVER SHEFFIELD PIKE

 

 sheffield-pike2

 Stone on summit of Sheffield Pike NY 369 182.  One side has a H (Howard of Greystoke) the other has a M (Marshall of Patterdale) a inscritption of ER and date 1830 is also shown.

boundary sheffield pike ny3

There are two metal posts with H and M 1912 also, one at Heron Pike and the other above Nick Head.

metal post heron pike ny 37

Metal post on Heron Pike.

 

There is another 2 stone  markers at NY 37370 17823.

boundary stone ny 37370 178

and at NY 37946 17559. Both are marked H and M

boundary stone ny 37946 175

 

boundary stone ny 37370 178

 

OTHER STONES.

 

skiddawstone1   skiddawstone2    skiddawstone3  skiddawstone4

 

A boundary stone at NY 29613 28805 at apoint marked on the modern OS map as the Stake. It marks the point at which 4 boundaries come together.

Originally known as Whaystone.  it was visited when the boundary of the Brundholme Manor, which was part of the Dalemain estate, on 7th June 1770.

ref Two Thousand Five Hundred Cumberland and Westmorland Folk p 53.

 Each side has an engraving on it

 North Side  GH 6 Gilfred Lawson

East side IL 7  james Lowther

South side EH J  Edward Hasell

West side LE 9. Lord Egremont

At present the interpretatrion of the numbers is not known.

 

low pen 1  boundary stone high pen NY   lowpen2  lowpen3

 

The ridge running over High Pen and low Pen have a series of unmarked stones. They are dressed sandstone (natural rock in the area is a slate type) and so they have been carried up and set up.

 

position of the stones are NY 11252 19017, NY 110 189 , NY 10761 18881, NY 10630 18921

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SCOTTISH MILESTONES

 

 

SOUTH WEST SCOTLAND

 

milepost a726 sw scotland

An old milestone on the A762 the inscriptions have been eroded off

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

milepost a726 sw scotland2An example from further along the road (A762) NG stands for New Galloway. Note it measures down to ½ mile.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MILESTONEDUMFRIES

A milestone in Dumfries. This one is to a particular part of the town.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plate attached to the Mid Steeple Dumfries. 

dumfries-milesign

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

milestone ny 10872 75022 

A milestone on the B7020 at NY10872 75022. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 A basic granite stone with '1' carved into it. At NX 978 746.milestone-dumfries

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

milepost-nx35410-89040A milestone on the now minor road from Glen Trool Village to Crosshill. NX 35410 89040.

This must have been one of the main roads north through Galloway at one time.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Milepost on the Carlisle (C) to Jedburgh (J) road N is for Newcastleton.

milepost newcastleton jedburgh rd

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 CENTRAL LOWLANDS

 

 

 

MILEPOST DOUNE

A cast iron milepost at Doune.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 MILEPOSTS OF FIFE

 

 

the toll roads of Fife have a very fine collection of mile posts and guide plates. Each turnpike trust had their own style of lettering etc on the cast iron tops. 

fife-milepost-3

Milepost on A91 at NO 492 176.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

milepost-fife-1

guide plate on the junction of the B 940 and A 915.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

milepost-fife-2

Guidepost on the other side of the same junction

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

milepost

Mileplate at the ferry terminal at Newport on Tay. It marks the end of the main coaching route from the Forth to the Tay.

 

Although a ferry ran from Newport (Seamills) to Dundee from probably the medieval period. The present pier dates from 1821 and was designed by Thomas Telford when the first steam ferry the 'Union' was introduced. The last sailing was 18th August 1966 with the opening of the Tay Road Bridge.

 

Made by Alex Russell Kirkcaldy Foundary 1824.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 HIGHLAND MILE POSTS.

 

Road improvements have played an important part in the development of the highlands, and still do. After the Jacobite uprisings the government built a series of milatary roads through the region to allow rapid movement of troops between the various barracks. (A lot of these were designed by General Wade and are shown on a lot of maps as Wades roads.) During the end of the eighteenth century and the start of the nineteenth century a further series of road developments were carriedout some of them under the guidance of Thomas Telford.

 

 

 

A9 road.

 

This is one of the main roads north through the highland connecting Edinburgh with the north of Scotland via Stirling, Perth and Inverness. There are a number of now blank granite milestones allong the route.

 

a9-milepost 

 

Within some of the towns and villages through which the original road passed cast iron marker are present. The above is in Carrbridge.

 

carrbridge-stone-mlepost

 

Above Carrbridge are a series of stone posts with markings still on them.

 

ionaferrymilepost

 

Cast Iron milepost at Fionnphort NM 305 232 on the A849.

Erected in 1897 it was cast by smith Pattinson. Pioneer Foundry, Blaydon on Tyne.

corran-milepost

 

A milepost on the road connecting the Corran Ferry and Lochaline Ferry.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.

CUMBRIAN MILESTONES

 

A lot of roads in Cumbria still have milestones along them. In some cases the style of the stone varies along the route.

 

A595/596/594.

A6

 

 

A6071

A66

A69

ALSTON AREA

B5301

SEDBURGH DENT AREA

SOUTH CUMBRIA

calrilse cockermouth rdJPGMilestone on the A 595 Carlisle to Cockermouth  at NY 30280 48772

cast iron plate on sandstone stone.

Turnpike trust inaugurated 1824.

 

 

 milestone bothel

 A Similar stone in the centre of Bothel village. This has now been bypassed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

wigton-milepostMilepost at Wigton NY 259 486. Showing as being in Wigton, although not in the centre of the town, but with distance from Carlisle

being a full mile and that to Cockermouth  being 15.5 miles, (note post above has cockermouth as 17.5 miles) the post must have

just been put here at its correct mileage position, rather than with odd measurements on it as would occur if placed in the centre of Wigton. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 thursby-milestone

 Milepost in centre of Thursby NY 327 503. this ones gives the distance to Wigton the intermediate town.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 milestone west newton

 Milepost on B 5301 road to Allonby at West Newton NY 137 444


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 A milestone on the road outside Allonby church.  NY 080 425.milestone-allonby

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

dovenby-milestone

 

Milestone on A594 at Dovenby.

 

Unusual in that it gives distances not to the town in particular but to the Market at Maryport and the Courthouse at Cockermouth.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SEDBURGH DENT AREA 

milepostcowgilldent

 Milepost on Cowgill, Dentdale. NY 756 869

The S stands for Sedbergh. 

The Trust put stone milestones in place in 

 The Sedbergh trust was formed in 1761 with roads from Sedbergh to Kirkby Stephen and also to Hawes in Wensleydale.

 

 

 

  

 

askrigg-rd-mile1

 

Over the county boundary the milepopsts still show Sedburgh as the west end of the road. This cast iron post is at SD 884 909.

This cast iron post is obviously a replacem because next to it is the original stone pillar.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

original-askrigg-rd-mile

 

 

kirkbylonsdale

 

 

Milepost at the southern end of Kirkby Lonsdale on the B 6254. Interestingly after London all the towns are on or near the A65, but Lancaster is not listed which would also be in the direction of this stone as you left Kirkby Lonsdale.

 boundarygreyriggb     bondary-stone-greyrigga

 

Milestone at SD 614 989. on the B6257.  BB stands for Borrowbridge and the other side is Kirkby Lonsdale although it needs to pass through Sedburgh.

Circular in plan on a square base erected in 1762 for the Grayrigg and Sedbergh Turnpike Road.

  sd6197b  sd6197a sd6197c

 

Milestone on the same road SD 616 975.

 

 

 

SOUTH CUMBRIA 

 

 

milepost  sd389802

Milepost at SD389 802.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 milepost brigsteer post SD4

 

 Cast Iron milepost on the Kendal to Brigsteer road at SD 49730 90261.

 

Set up in 1900 cast by Day of Castle foundry Kendal. Obviously measured from the main town of Kendal.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

milepostsd396883 Mile post at SD 396 883.

'K' stands for Kendal.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

cartmell milepost

Milestone in Cartmell village.

Shows the distances when the main route south from the area was over the sands of Morecombe Bay at low tide. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 THE A6

The A6 was the main road north through Cumbria before the opening of the M6 motorway. It was originally a number of turnpike roads each of which had its own design of milestone.

This mile post is a bit of a cheat in this section being made of cast iron. On the road from Kendal to Burton in Kendal, it was the main road at time. It also gives the date of erection.

 

 MILEPOST SD 780530

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

milepost-A6-NY-49757-82358

 

A similar design at NY 49757 82358. This time showing Milnthorpe as the nearest town to the south.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Mile post in centre of Shap showing Kendal the next town to the south.shap milepost

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

milnthorpea62

Milestone on A6 just south of Milnthorpe.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 milestoneA6 hackthorpe

Milestone (Cast iron) on the A6 at Hackthorpe . This is one of the Heron Sike turnpike trust. They were cast in 1825 at Gatebeck near Kendal. Between Kendal and Shap they were placed on the west side of the road and between Shap and Penrith they were on the east side.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Milestone outside The Greyhound Inn (an early coaching inn) in Shap village.

shap greyhound inn

The writing would suggest that this is an old stone pre-turnpike stone

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 highgatehotelkendal1  highgatehotelkendal2

 

A pair of stones either side of the main pedestrian entrance to Highgate Hotel, Kendal. This was one of the main coaching inns of Kendal.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 A6071

 

 

The A6071 is the Longtown to Brampton turnpike. Formed in 1807 under act of Parliment 47 Geo3 c15 operated till 1876 over a distance of 11 miles.

 

longtownbrampton

 

 

A very basic milestone at NY 448 651 with no indication as to which towns are where. It is 5 miles from Longtown and 6 Brampton.

 

 

   

 ALSTON AREA

 

 

 

 The roads around Alston are particluarly rich in milestones and there is a wide variety in design. The London Lead Company, the main leasee of the lead mines around Alston Moor. The roads in the area have always been poor and pack ponies rather than wagons were the main form of transport. The London Lead Company's agents Robert and Jospeh Stagg surveyed and built a number of roads in the area between 1820 and 1830. These connected Alston and Garrigill in the Alston area. At the same time Greenwich Hospital Commission, the lords of the manor of Alston Moor and the Leasors of the mining rights, employed J. L. McAdam in the 1820s to build roads. these included Hexham to Penrith via alston and Brampton to Alston.   

At the main road junction in Alston at the bottom of the main street is a large stone giving distances to all the main towns accessible from Alston. It does however not give any directions.

alstontown

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

milestone alston ny700439

Mile post on the Penrith to Alston road (A686) (NY 700 439)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

hartsideThis is another Milestone on the Penrith to Alston road (A686) but shows the distance to an intermediate village.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

nentheadhill

Milestone on the road from Alston to Weardale (A689)

at NY 787 435 showinhg distance back to Nenthead and the major towns in Weardale.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

milestoneny771378alston

Mile stone at NY 771 378 on the Alston to Middleton road.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 A69

 

 

 Milepost A69   Brampton.                                               bramptona69a

Sandstone pillar with two cast iron plates.

The first Turnpike trust inaugurated in 1747 followed the military road. This road went via Great Crosby and Stanwix to Carlisle. Now called the A 689. The road via Warwick Bridge to Brampton the A69 was turnpiked in 1828. Their milestones were labelled Carlisle and Brampton.

See Warwick Bridge date stone

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Milestone A69 at NY 492 517haytona69b

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 A66

 

 

A recently replaced milepost on A66

At Threkeld.

 

milestone near threlkeld

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 milepost penrith by bowerba

 A cast iron milepost on what was originally the route of the main road from Penrith to Appleby at NY 53153 29595.

 

The front edge shows the name of the foundry casting it as Bowerbank.

 

Joseph Bowerbank had ironmonger premises at 2 & 3 Market Place Penrith and also Victoria Foundry in Penrith.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A 590.

 

haverthwaite1   haverthwaite2    haverthwaite3

 

A rather battered milestone on the old A590 at Haverthwaite

 

upperholker1    upperholker2    upperholker3

A similar stone on the road into Backbarrow.

 

  

OTHER LAKE DISTRICT MILE POSTS 

    

 

 milepostwhinlatterrd

 A milestone on the Whinlatter pass. No evidence of where the two places that is 6 miles away.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 A cast iron milepost on the Keswick

milestonethirlmererd

 to  Ambleside road A591.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 milepost-castlerigg

 A similar milestone just outside Keswick at Castlerigg.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MILESTONEAT-DALEMAINMilestone on the A592 at NY 478 268 outside the entrance to Dalemain house. Photographed in January 2014 the metal plates are missing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OTHER MILE POSTS OF NORTH CUMBRIA

 

 

milestonemoat cumbria

 A sandstone pillar with a cast iron plate at Moat north of Longtown.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 A mile stone on the B 6276 road between Brough and Middleton in Teesdale. NY 82442 19465milestone ny 82442 19465

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BOUNDARY MARKERS ASSOCIATED WITH INDUSTRY.

 

Many industries had a need to mark the boundary of their land or the rights to the minerals which they were exploiting. these were often marked by stones with usually initials carved in them to signify the company. As the iron industry developed cast iron markers were produced. 

 

 

 

MINERAL RIGHTS BOUNDARY MARKERS

 

Most mineral rights belonged to the 'owner' of the manor. Therefore in areas such as the north Pennines which had rich mineral veins it was very important that the boundary between neighbouring manors in the area of the veins was clearly and accurately marked. In areas that were particularly rich with numerous veins there was often a number of legal cases to establish the actual boundary and regular boundary markers were put up. These markers usually have the initialsof the two manors carved on opposing sides. It is rarer for the company exploiting the mineral veins to be shown on the posts.

 

 

BOUNDARY STONE NY 70033 35224

 

A marker stone at NY 70033 3522

 

 

This is one of a series of stones between the mineral rights of the Flemings and the Thanets on Cross Fell. Each stone has a large T on one side and F on the other and an individual number.

Another example at Teeshead NY 699 340

 

boundary-stone-teesheadaboundary-stone-teesheadb

 

This has F36 on the west side and BFT on the east side.

boundary stone ny 69850 347

Stone at NY 69850 34790 marked as number 35

boundary stone ny 700003 35

Stone at NY70003 35123 number 30.

The boundary on the north side of Fleming holding also has a series of stones

 

boundary-stoe-ny-67266-3581boundary-stone-ny67266-3581

 

This one is situated at NY 67266 35818 has a F on the south side and G on the north.

 

marker-post-above-greenside

 

A cast iron marker post above Greenside Mine on side of Sheffield Pike.

 

boundary-perrys-dam1boundary-perrys-dam2

 

Mineral Royalty boundary stone at NY 785 417, between Alston Moor (A on north side). This was owned by the Greenwich Hospital for Sailors. Who were given it by the government when the Earl of Derwentwater had his lands ceased after the 1715 Jacobean uprising.  And the royalty of Priorsdale (P on south side) which covers the South Tyne valley.

 

 

 ROUNDHILL-BOUNDARY

 

A boundary marker on the summit of Round Hill NY 744 362. one side has A for Alston Moor and P for Priorsdale.

 

boundary-stone-nenthead-2

 

Boundary stone at NY 771 426. South face has G & Co 1849. (G & Co = Govenor and Company an alternative name for London Lead Company.)

 A similar stone is at NY 758 427 above Bentyfield mine.

 

    boundary-benty1boundary-benty2

 

 

 

 

boundary stone ny 76738 425   boundary stone ny 76738b

Another stone in the same series as the 2 above stones at NY 76738 42578. D G Co on east face GOV and Co on west face.

 

boundary stone ny83157 1991and

 

Boundary Stone at NY 83157 19911 with E 45 carved on the south face.

 

 The moor between the Eden valley and Lunedale (Stainmore) is a fairly non descript area and the boundary between the manors of Earl Thanet in the Eden Valley and the Earl of Strathmore and as is shown from Cary's map of Westmorland from 1789 shows 2 boundaries with the Earl of Thanets to the west of the Earl of Strathmore.

 

silver kale well map

However at the head of Swindale beside the road from Brough to Middleton in Teesdale a series of lead veins which was started to be mined in the mid 1700s. In 1790 there was a need to determine the accurate line of the boundary so that royalties could be collected corectly. The boundary was finally settled in 1808 and a series of stones were placed across the moor. This is now the county boundary.

 

boundary stone castle carro

 

A marker stone in Geltsdale associated with the Carlisle Waterworks. 

 

 

 

 

 

THE BARONY OF GILSLAND

 

The Earl of Carlisle part of the Howard family gained control of the Barony of Gilsland in the 16th Century. This massive area of north Cumbria from the scottish border in the north to the north of the Eden valley.

The estate used stone markers to mark a number of developments in the barony.

naworth drain

This stone has drain carved on the top. It stands on the bank of the River Irthing at the point where a field drain discharges into the river NY 59729 64804.

There are a series of similar stones beside the track from Lanerton Farm Where drains discharge into Wall Burn.

 

naworth date 

Across the Barony are a series of posts with datres carved on them. These are usually associated with plantations of both broad leave and conifer trees. This stone is at NY 59045 65347 and is associated with a beech wood.

 

 

 WAR DEPARTMENT BOUNDARY STONES.

 

 

During various crisis the government took over areas of land for national security and marked this land if fences were not suitable with marker stones inscribed with WD and an arrow. They usually have a number on them also. 

 

 

wd-sign-dumfries

 

 

A marker set into a wall at NX 979 743, Dumfries. This was one of a series.

 

mod kingstown

 One of a series of concrete posts marked MOD running beside the 'old waverley line' north of Carlisle showing the boundary of the old RAF 4 MU site.

 

south gare 1  south gare 2

 

A pair of marker stones at the South Gare, the mouth of the River Tees.

 

 

RAILWAY COMPANY MARKERS.

 

As railways developed the companies had to purchase strips of land on which to build their lines and larger areas on which to build their stations and goods yards. These were usually fenced off but at certain points usually near access points then boundary markers were placed. These showed usually the railway company initials.

 

NORTH EASTERN RAILWAY COMPANY.

 

 

ner-post

 

 

Cast iron boundary post. (Alston station Discovery Centre)

 

NEWCASTLE AND CARLISLE RAILWAY.

 

n-and-c-post

 

 

Cast iron boundary post. (Alston Station Discovery Centre).

 

COCKERMOUTH AND PENRITH RAILWAY COMPANY.

 

keswick-railway-post

 

 

Boundary stone at junction of Station Road Keswick and the Entrance to the station.

 

MARYPORT AND CARLISLE RAILWAY

 

mc boundary museum

 A Maryport and Carlisle boundary post (St Bees Railway Museum)

 

mc boundary plate

 

 A Maryport and Carlisle railway boundary maker plate (St Bees Railway Museum)

 

MIDLAND RAILWAY COMPANY

 

MR boundary post ny 49895 4

 

 A rust Midland Railway boundary post still institu near the Carlisle to settle line NY 49895 49650.